Advanced Modeling Approaches for Cardiovascular Surgery [I.C.]

Prof. Gianfranco B. Fiore, Prof. Emiliano Votta

Code: 099281
Credits: 10

The course deals about the development and use of advanced engineering methods for high-fidelity simulations of surgical and interventional treatments of the cardiovascular system. The introductory section deals about the requirements of a simulation environment for cardiovascular surgery, with recalls concerning in-vivo animal testing limitations and the current regulatory scenario. The central part of the course is focused onto experimental and computational methods for the simulation of cardiovascular surgery. The experimental section provides the criteria for design and setting-up of mock circulatory loops, from traditional apparatuses to the recent techniques for the development of realistic simulation phantoms. In the computational section, the modelling approaches for developing and using virtual phantoms are treated, from the reconstruction of geometries from medical images, to the practical simulation of surgical devices and procedures. The final section of the course deals about the integration of experimental and computational aspects, using some real-world applications as case-studies.

 

Bioartificial Systems at the Micro and Nano Scale [I.C.]

Prof. Simone VesentiniProf. Marco Rasponi

Code: 051151
Credits: 10

The course is focused on methods, technologies and operating principles that enable the manipulation and control of biological entities at the micro- and nano-scale. Topics include microdevices for the control of the environment at the scale level of cells (lab-on-chips, bioMEMS, organs-on-chips) and molecular-level nanostructures (quantum wires, quantum dots, graphene or carbon nanotubes, biological nanostructures obtained e.g. from DNA). Systems at the micro- and nano-scale are ubiquitous in a wide range of technological innovations; they nowadays represent enabling tools for the advancement of fundamental research and it is believed that, in the near future, they will invade the biotechnological/biomedical market.

 

Biofluidodynamycs Lab

Prof. Gianfranco B. Fiore

Code: 083413
Credits: 5

The course deals with the laboratory techniques for the analysis of biofluid-dynamic problems related to cardiovascular physiopathology, surgery and biomedical devices. Chair lessons: -design criteria for biofluid-dynamic experiments; measurement of hydrodynamic and rheologic quantities; -lab pumping systems; -methods for the development of hydraulic mock loops. Laboratory activities consist in tackling practical cases, chosen among different fields of interest for biofluid dynamics: -analysis and discussion of the proposed case; -experimental design (literature analysis, setting-up of the experimental equipment, protocol drafting); -carrying out of the experimental campaign; discussion and reporting.

 

Biomechanics

Prof. Alberto Redaelli

Code: 085858
Credits: 10

Structure and function: determinants of the mechanical performance of tissues. Hard tissues: mechanical behaviour of bone and teeth at the micro and meso scale. Soft tissues: structure, architecture and strength of collagen fibril and proteoglycan based tissues such as tendons, ligaments and dermis. Multiphase tissues: poroelastic and lubrication theories applied to the study of cartilage and intervertebral disc. Vascular tissue: vessel wall stress calculation. Peripheral nervous tissue: structure and damage mechanics. Contractile tissues: motor protein, sarcomere and muscle performances, skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle features, contractile energetics. Joints: ankle, knee and hip kinetics. Fluid tissues: non Newtonian fluid constitutive equations applied to blood and synovial fluid.

 

Biomolecular Modelling Laboratory

Prof. Simone Vesentini

Code: 085840
Credits: 5

The aim of the course is to familiarize students with modern methods of biomolecular modelling. Both theoretical and  computational activities will be developed. From the practical side the theoretical aspects will be used to study proteins, lipids, and saccharides and to address practical issues such as diffusion phenomena, determination of nanoscale mechanical properties, drug design, etc.). The main aspects covered in this course are: base concepts of molecular modelling approach; molecular mechanics, definition, features, and force field definition and parametrization; optimization techiniques; molecular dynamics; coarse grain approach for biomolecules.

 

Cell Bioengineering

Prof. Monica Soncini

Code: 083042
Credits: 10

Biophysical and biological mechanisms at sub-cellular and molecular level are key elements for the comprehension of the phenomena, which regulate the cell behavior in physiologic conditions and above all for the identification of the molecular mechanisms at the basis of several diseases. The aim of the course is to familiarize students with basic elements on biophysics and mechanical behavior of sub-cellular structures (membrane, cytoskeleton), adhesion mechanisms and cell transport. In addition, the course deals with technological aspects and applications of advanced visualization and manipulation methods (e.g., microscopy techniques, optical traps) used for investigations at the molecular and cellular level. Basic concepts and theoretical notions are given for the comprehension of the mathematical models aimed at the interpretation of the sub-cellular phenomena. Also, experimental techniques used for the mechanical characterization at the molecular and cellular level are illustrated.

 

Computational Biomechanics Laboratory

Prof. Emiliano Votta, Prof. Claudio Chiastra

Code: 096283
Credits: 5

The course introduces to the numerical techniques currently adopted for the design and evaluation of biomedical devices and to the assessment of physio-pathologic states and surgical procedures. Along the course, the student will practice with two standard commercial codes aimed at the strucure and fluid dynamic analysis, respectively. In detail, the course will focus on the following topics: Introduction to computational mechanics: discretisation methods; numerical method for the solution of partial derivative equations. Structural mechanics: the ABAQUS code; modelling of elastic hyperelastic and anisotropic materials; contact mechanics. Fluid mechanics: the Fluent code; laminar and turbulent flows; steady and transient flows. Multiphysic problems: moving boundary, complex boundary conditions; fluid-structure interactions.

 

Corso Progetto [Industriale]

Prof. Riccardo Vismara

Code: 052361
Credits: 5

L’insegnamento vuole fornire allo studente la possibilità di sfruttare la formazione maturata nel triennio al fine di sviluppare un tema in modo autonomo. Il lavoro in gruppo, la presentazione in aula dei risultati conseguiti, la presentazione di soft-skills trasversali dalle diverse discipline ingegneristiche caratterizzano il percorso di insegnamento. 

L’insegnamento si divide in lezioni frontali e attività di tutorato.  Le tematiche principali affrontate nelle ore di lezione frontale sono: Tecniche, strategie e strumenti per realizzare ricerche bibliografiche e brevettuali attraverso la presentazione delle banche dati più rilevanti di settore; Tecniche, strategie e strumenti informatici per affrontare la progettazione e la scrittura di un report scientifico, con particolare riferimento alla contestualizzazione del problema, alla descrizione dei metodi adottati, alla presentazione in modo critico ed alla discussione dei risultati riportati.
Le attività di tutorato prevedono esercitazioni pratiche finalizzate ad apprendere concetti fondamentali relativi all’utilizzo delle banche dati e degli applicativi utili (tra cui excel, power point…) per le finalità sopra riportate.

Il docente, organizzati gli studenti in gruppi di 2 o 3, propone: (a) lavori scientifici da analizzare in modo critico; (b) ricerca bibliografica relativa ad un tema assegnato. Saranno organizzati incontri di presentazione del lavoro svolto finalizzati alla discussione collegiale aperta e critica. Ai gruppi che presentano il proprio lavoro verranno poste domande relative alla letteratura scientifica, ai risultati conseguiti ed alle considerazioni condivise con l’aula. La reciproca interazione tra gli studenti costituirà un elemento caratterizzante di questa parte finale dell’insegnamento, al termine del quale ciascun gruppo produrrà un elaborato finale contenente l’analisi critica del lavoro assegnato.

Saranno organizzati seminari tenuti da professionisti su argomenti di interesse tra cui proprietà intellettuale, ricerca e sviluppo.

 

Impianti Ospedalieri e Sicurezza [I.C.]

Prof. Riccardo Vismara, Prof. Veronica Cimolin

Code: 083112
Credits: 10

Impianti e Sistemi Ospedalieri - Presentazione della struttura e del funzionamento dei principali impianti tecnologici dell'ospedale: impianti di comunicazione, di distribuzione di gas medicali, di sterilizzazione, elettrici, di climatizzazione e riscaldamento, idrico sanitari, trasporti meccanici, antincendio, economali e di supervisione e controllo. La loro operativita' e' valutata in rapporto all'attivita' svolta nell'ambiente del paziente, al funzionamento delle apparecchiature biomediche, alle interazioni ed interdipendenze tra impianti ed alle problematiche di sicurezza globale dell'ospedale. Sicurezza, Documentazione e Norme - Problematiche inerenti la sicurezza specifica nell'utilizzo delle apparecchiature e dei dispositivi medici in ambiente sanitario. Cenni di elettrofisiologia; rischi di origine elettrica e radiante. Sistemi di classificazione delle apparecchiature in base al rischio. Modalita' per il collaudo di apparecchiature per uso ospedaliero. Normazione giuridica sui dispositivi e protesi, direttive europee e leggi nazionali. Norme di qualita' ISO 9000 per il settore biomedico. Analisi dei rischi; progett. e stesura dei fascicoli tecnici per l'immissione in commercio dei disp. medici per l'ottenimento della marcatura CE.